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Leveraging the Landscape: State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2012

Literature: Available at NO COST Manuals, Guides, Reports

Peters-Stanley, M., Hamilton, K., & Yin, D. 2012. "Leveraging the Landscape: State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2012" Ecosystem Marketplace.


Forest Trends


Forest Trends


  • This report by Ecosystem Marketplace - Forest Trends, reviews the state of the international forest carbon market, including the finance and development of reforestation projects. Worldwide, in 2011, REDD credits fell and Afforestation / Reforestation credits grew.
  • The greatest volume of credits is in the Americas, and VCS and CDM are the most used standards (CAR is used for California). Additionally, 29% of credits got a CCB (Climate, Community, Biodiversity) standard (and a higher premium for their credits).  
  • Increasingly, reforestation credits have been issued as trees in A/R project mature and begin to sequester more carbon, and as projects are newly approved and pre-payments are issued.  
  • Brasil and US / Canada dominate the market by being home to ~ 30% of total project locations.
  • The only two REDD projects issued credits under VCS in developing countries were located on private lands (Belize and Kenya).  
  • A/R project are increasingly using more native species (but at least 1/3 are still monoculture). A Chinese standard (Panda standard), in coordination with Winrock, developed a standard for bamboo reforestation projects.  
  • The majority of the buyers of the credits were companies seeking to meet CSR targets or compliance under Kyoto CDM.

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    ELTI is a joint initiative of:
    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute