Resource Details

"Land Ownership and Forest Restoration" in Forest Restoration in Landscapes: Beyond Planting Trees

Literature: Books or Book Chapters

Oviedo, G. 2005, "Land Ownership and Forest Restoration" in Forest Restoration in Landscapes: Beyond Planting Trees, eds. S. Mansourian, D. Vallauri, N. Dudley, (in cooperation with WWF international), Springer, New York, pp. 84-93.


WWF International




  • This section provides an overview of land tenure issues relating to forest restoration. It distinguishes four major types of property rights- private, state, common, and open access. Most forest area worldwide is state, and in modern times, open access forests rarely exist, but in countries with little government regulation, state-owned forests are very similar to open access in practice.
  • In China during the 80’s and 90’s, farmers held land tenure but did not have access to individual trees, and it was found to lower incentives for reforestation.
  • In a highland region of Ethiopia, reforestation was uncommon because frequent land re-allocation activities made villagers unwilling to invest in uncertain future activities. NGOs worked with local governments and communities in order to establish guidelines that the communities would be able to retain rights to reforestation areas.
  • In a region of west Timor, Indonesia, the national government planned a reforestation program in a national forest, but the forest overlapped with a community that used the area for cultivation. The forest service consulted with villagers, but the land tenure issue was not resolved.      

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