Resource Details

Tree density, basal area and species diversity in a disturbed dry tropical forest of northern India: implications for conservation

Literature: Journal Articles

Sagar R. & Singh J.S. 2006. “Tree density, basal area and species diversity in a disturbed dry tropical forest of northern India: Implications for conservation” Environmental Conservation, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 256–262.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author:


Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India


Environmental Conservation

Selecting the link above redirects this page to the article on the journal website where the online material can be purchased or accessed if with subscription. For more information on access, see sidebar.

Species Info

  • Boswellia serrate (native),
  • Shorea robusta(native),
  • Sterculia urens (Kavalama urens, native),
  • Acacia catechu (native),
  • Tectona grandis (native),
  • Hardwickia binata (native)


  • Tropical dry forests of India, 38.2% of the country’s total forest cover, are facing savannafication and a loss of biological diversity as a result of degradation and deforestation.
  • Sagar and Singh examined the relationship between forest basal area (hence biomass and productivity) and tree species diversity across a gradient of disturbance in five sites (Hathinala, Khatabaran, Majhauli, Bhawani Katariya and Kota) between 1998–2000.
  • At each of the five sites, three one-hectare permanent plots were established to measure all trees of diameter >9.6 cm. and similarity of vegetation composition, alpha diversity, species richness, species evenness, and the coefficient of variation of tree basal area were calculated.
  • The five sites exhibited different combinations of dominant and co-dominant species for different communities reflecting differences in habitat conditions, topography and between-site distances.
  • Acacia catechu, Tectona grandis and Shorea robusta represented highest stem density at the Hathinala, Khatabaran and Majhauli sites, respectively, and Hardwickia binata at the Bhawani Katariya and Kota sites.
  • Alpha diversity, species richness, evenness, and stem density were positively and linearly related with total tree basal area (to a statistically significant level when all sites were included) which the authors suggest is an important characteristic of the species-poor disturbed dry forest.
  • The average number of species per hectare (4-23) and the average basal area (1.31–13.78 m2 ha1) was relatively low compared to similar studies in the dry forests worldwide.
  • In terms of silvicultural management, seedling and sapling survival was relatively low, possibly due to illegal harvest, density dependent mortality, and grazing. The authors recommend enrichment with overstory dominants and their protection.

Geographical Region

  • South Asia
  • Country

  • India
  • This database is a work in progress, and we need your input to keep it up to date. Feel free to contact ELTI at to provide information on your own work as well as other projects and literature currently missing from the database.


    ELTI is a joint initiative of:
    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute