Resource Details

Afforestation and reforestation projects in South and South-East Asia under the Clean Development Mechanism: Trends and development opportunities

Literature: Journal Articles

Nijnik M, & Halder P. 2013. “Afforestation and reforestation projects in South and South-East Asia under the Clean Development Mechanism: Trends and development opportunities” Land Use Policy vol. 31, pp.504– 515.

Contact Info

Corresponding authors: and



  • Social, Economic and Geographical Sciences Group, The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, United Kingdom
  • School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box-111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland


Land Use Policy

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  • Based on surveys of experts, developers and consultants in both South and Southeast Asia and Annex 1 countries, this paper attempts to identify key trends, opportunities, and constraints for development of afforestation/reforestation projects (AR) under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
  • Specifically, the study used the “expert sampling” method and received 52 completed surveys from South and Southeast Asia predominately from India, government employees, and the forestry sector.  
  • The questionnaire was divided into sections related to personal information; opinions on eligibility and suitability of CDM projects; agreement or disagreement with relevant issues; analysis of prices, partnership types, and standards; a SWOT (strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats)  analysis and ranking of case studies; questions about the benefits; and ranking the criteria for success of projects.
  • A similar questionnaire formulated from the viewpoints of project developers/investors and consultants and including open questions was also sent to 45 experts in Annex I countries; 15 complete responses were received representing a wide range of countries, organizations, and responsibilities within CDMAR.
  • Respondents from both groups considered the availability of land suitable for tree planting and the development of community-based forestry as major strengths of CDM-AR. There was a consensus between the two groups of experts regarding certification and developing standards for CDM-AR. Community participation, with a focus on local livelihoods and biodiversity conservation, were identified as the basic criteria for success.




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