Resource Details

Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Lewis R.R. III. 2005. “Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests” Ecological Engineering, vol. 24, pp. 403–418.

Contact Info

Corresponding author:


Lewis Environmental Services, Inc., P.O. Box 5430, Salt Springs, FL 32134, USA


Available at no cost:


  • This article addresses the importance of assessing the existing hydrology of natural extant mangrove ecosystems and applying this knowledge to protect and restore mangroves.
  • Specifically, the author reviews previous research to conclude that flooding depth, and its duration and frequency are critical factors in the survival of both mangrove seedlings and mature trees. For these reasons, any engineering works constructed near mangrove forests, or in the watershed that drains to mangrove forests, must account for these conditions.
  • The author recommends several steps before considering restoration: look at the potential existence of stresses that might prevent secondary succession from occurring, remove that stress, determine if natural seedling recruitment is occurring, and evaluate the costs of restoration as early as possible

Geographical Region

  • Other-Subtropics
  • Ecosystems

  • Mangrove
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