Resource Details

Methods and Criteria for Successful Mangrove Forest Restoration

Literature: Books or Book Chapters Available at NO COST

Lewis R.R. III. 2009.”Methods and Criteria for Successful Mangrove Forest Restoration” in Coastal Wetlands: An Integrated Ecosystem Approach, eds, G.M.E. Perillo, E. Wolanski, D. R. Cahoon, & M. M. Brinson. Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 787-800.

Contact Info

Corresponding author:


Coastal Resources Group, Inc., PO Box 5430, Salt Springs, FL 32134-5430 USA


Available at no cost:


  • The author outlines several factors required for successful restoration of mangrove forests: define the watershed and recent changes in hydrology, select the site, define and incorporate clearly stated goals and achievable and measurable criteria of success, initiate a monitoring program, and correct as necessary. Each step of mangrove restoration projects should consciously acknowledge past failures and successes.
  • Site selection should be guided by the general principle that mangrove forests worldwide exist at the down slope end of coastal drainage basins on a raised and sloped platform above mean sea level which is flooded 30% or less of the time by tidal waters.
  • Based on the established goals (eg improved fish habitat or 20% mangrove survival) uniform sampling methodology at specific time intervals should be developed.The author specifically recommends permanent, haphazard or random plots of 5x5m, at a density that allows for stratified sampling over the elevation gradient.
  • The author stresses that cost-effective hydrologic restoration opportunities should be emphasized over planting. 

Geographical Region

  • Other-Subtropics
  • Ecosystems

  • Mangrove
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