Resource Details

Important Considerations to Achieve Successful Mangrove Forest Restoration with Optimum Fish Habitat

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Lewis R.R. III & Gilmore R.G. 2007. “Important Considerations to Achieve Successful Mangrove Forest Restoration with Optimum Fish Habitat” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 823–837.

Contact Info

Corresponding author:


  • Lewis Environmental Services, Inc., P.O. Box 5430, Salt Springs, Florida 32134 USA
  • Estuarine, Coastal and Ocean Science, Inc., 5920 First Street SW, Vero Beach, Florida 32968 USA


Available at no cost:

Species Info

  • Rhizophora mangle (native)
  • Avicennia germinans (native)
  • La­guncularia racemosa (native)


  • Focusing primarily on Florida, USA, this article discusses how fish and mangrove ecosystems are coupled in time and space, offers several strategies for mangrove restoration with the goal to improve fish habitat, and provides a simple sequential checklist of design tasks.
  • The authors review several articles that discuss the value of mangroves as habitat for fish and invertebrates, the effects of habitat protection, the life histories and eco-physiological capabilities of fish, and the effects of altering habitat through impounding, degradation, or fragmentation.
  • They suggest threerestoration strategies for fish habitat optimization: (1) achieve plant cover similar to that in an adjacent relatively undisturbed and mature mangrove ecosystem; (2) establish a network of channels that mimics the shape and form of a nat­ural tidal creek system; and (3) establish a heterogeneous landscape similar to that exhibited by the lo­cal mangrove ecosystem.
  • They review likely sources of failure and outline five sequential design tasks to minimize or prevent them: (1) understand the autecology of the relevant species; (2) understand normal hydrologic patterns; (3) determine what modifications and stresses are preventing natural secondary succession; (4) reestablish the appropriate hydrology and then utilize natural mangrove recruitment; and (5) plant propagules or seedlings if natural recruitment is met with failure.


Geographical Region

  • Other-Subtropics
  • Ecosystems

  • Mangrove
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