Resource Details

Experience with planting dipterocarps in peninsular Malaysia

Literature: Books or Book Chapters

Appanah, S. & Weinland, G. 1996, "Experience with planting dipterocarps in peninsular Malaysia" in Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management, eds. A. Schulte & D. Schone, World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 411-445.


  • German Agency for Technical Cooperation


Available for purchase at:

Some pages freely available from Google Books at this link.

Species Info

  • Shorea macrophylla
  • Hopea odorata
  • Shorea platyclados
  • Dryobalanops oblongifolia
  • Dyobalanops aromatica
  • Anisoptera laevis
  • Anisoptera scaphula
  • Shorea leprosula
  • Vatica wallichii
  • Vatica pauciflora
  • Shorea talura
  • Shorea skingkawang
  • Shorea obtusa
  • Shorea bracteolata
  • Shorea assamica
  • Dipterocarpus oblongifolius
  • Shorea parvifolia
  • Shorea macroptera
  • Shorea ovalis
  • Dipterocarpus baudii
  • Shorea acuminata
  • Dipterocarpus costulatus


  • In this book chapter, the authors provide a history of dipterocarp planting in Malaysia.
  • Traditionally Dipterocarp trees were rarely planted in Peninsular Malaysia, except for some cases in which they were part of plantings by aborigine tribes (such as the planting of Kapur, or Dryobalanops aromatica, trees for the sale of camphor along trade routes).
  • In 1929, the Forest Research Institute in Kepong was opened to "test the reactions of high forest species to planting in the open, in belukar, and in virgin forest...".
  • Between 1956 and 1990, 17,885 ha of land underwent enrichment plantings, but low survival and inadequate nurseries and supply of seedlings were reported.
  • The authors provide information on the average diameter of dominant trees from the trial plantations and the approximate rotation age suggested. Most species grow best under light shade, though Shorea leprosula and Shorea parvifolia require more light.
  • In the 55-65 year old plantations, the authors report that Dryobalanops aromatica, Dryobalanops oblonifolia, and Shorea macrophylla had profuse regeneration, while many mast-fruiting species were not able to regenerate in the pure stands.
  • The authors recommend conditioning seedlings of 25-50cm to increase adapatation to planting and managing density and shade for optimum growth and self-pruning.
  • They offer final and initial stand densities for planting programs of the following species: Shorea macrophylla, Hopea odorata, Shorea platyclados, Dryobalanops oblongifolia, Shorea parvifolia, Shorea macroptera, Shorea ovalis, Dipterocarpus baudii, Shorea acuminata and Dipterocarpus costulatus (ranging in order from 278-714 stems per ha).
  • Finally, the authors provide information on the economics ofdipterocarop plantations, suggesting that the rate or return of less than 10%.
  • They suggest that low-risk species choices, close control of the production during establishment and after, and silvicultural considerations for all field operations need to be incorporated to ensure the success of a dipterocarp plantation project.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Tropical Wet Forest
  • Country

  • Malaysia
  • This database is a work in progress, and we need your input to keep it up to date. Feel free to contact ELTI at to provide information on your own work as well as other projects and literature currently missing from the database.


    ELTI is a joint initiative of:
    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute