Resource Details

Between Cash and Usufruct Rights: In Search of an Appropriate Policy Instrument for Sustained Local People's Participation

Literature: Available at NO COST Manuals, Guides, Reports

Pasicolan, P.N. 1993, "Between Cash and Usufruct Rights: In Search of an Appropriate Policy Instrument for Sustained Local People's Participation", Conference Presentation, Common Property in Ecosystems Under Stress, the Fourth Annual Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Manila, Philippines, June 16-19, 1993.

Contact Info



College of Forestry and Environmental Management (CFEM), Isabela State University (ISU)


This article is available at no cost here: Indiana University


  • This study examines the success of a massive reforestation program that was launched in the Philippines after receiving a loan from the Asian Development Bank in 1988. Contract restoration and incentive mechanisms were introduced to include the participation of civic and local community groups in reforestation
  • The author provides empirical evidence that securing land tenure can increase participants’ motivation for continued engagement in restoration programs
  • The author found that paid labor was not sufficient for ensuring quality participation in contract reforestation schemes
  • The author recommends that contract restoration participants should be allowed to select which trees they would like to plant and what function they will serve (e.g. fruit, fuelwood, fodder, watershed services) in order to give them a feeling of ownership and improve their morale for the project. Overall, locals' needs should be considered in the project design.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems


  • Philippines
  • Subject

  • Social Issues
  • This database is a work in progress, and we need your input to keep it up to date. Feel free to contact ELTI at to provide information on your own work as well as other projects and literature currently missing from the database.


    ELTI is a joint initiative of:
    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute