Resource Details

Seeding ecological restoration of tropical forests: Priority setting under REDD+

Literature: Journal Articles

Kettle, C.J., 2012. "Seeding ecological restoration of tropical forests: Priority setting under REDD+." Biological Conservation, vol. 154, pp. 34-41.

Contact Info

  • Chris J. Kettle
    • E-mail:
    • Tel: +41 44 632 31 95
    • Fax: +41 44 632 15 75


  • Department of Environmental Science, ETH Zurich, CHN G75.1, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland


Biological Conservation

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Species Info

  • Imperata cylindrica
  • Jacaranda copaia
  • Tabebuia quayacan
  • Carapa procera
  • Swietenia macrophylla
  • Beilschmiedia pendula
  • Cinnamomum spp.
  • Ocotea spp.


  • Sound understanding of ecological knowledge is required in the implementation of a successful forest restoration project especially when funds are limited. The paper focus on how masting phenology, seed storage (recalcitrant) and distance of seed dispersal can affect forest restoration success.
  • A review of existing literature was carried out to understand the extent to which these characteristics were displayed in different tree species across Asia, Africa and Neotropics. The study revealed that masting as a reproductive strategy is not confined to Asia but also adopted by many Neotropical species. This has strong implication for forest restorations as seed collection and securing seed sources has proved to be one of the key challenges in the establishment of nurseries.
  • While recalcitrant species are common in Asia, about 44% species reviewed in the Neotropics were also recalcitrant. In particular, the species within Meliaceae and Lauraceae which are important timber trees species have 55% and 96% of its species being recalcitrant.
  • The review found that most seeds dispersed less than 100m from the mother tree and few species are able to disperse seeds further than 1km. This makes seed dispersal a limiting factor on forest recovery and could arrest succession due to lack of seed dispersal.
  • The author suggested for REDD+ to consider the following as a priority in investing its funds:
    • Implementation of phonological monitoring to facilitate effective seed collection;
    • Setting up nurseries targeting collection and germination of species with limited seed dispersal that are of high economic and ecological value;
    • Supporting conservation of key fauna essential for seed dispersal.

Geographical Region

  • General
  • Ecosystems

  • Tropical Wet Forest
  • Country

  • General
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